Pineal cysts are benign, fluid-filled deposits located in the pineal gland region of the brain. Although most pineal cysts are small, large pineal cysts can cause a variety of symptoms such as: headaches, normal pressure hydrocephalus (increased pressure on the brain due to build-up excess fluid), and even seizures and loss of consciousness in extreme cases.
Pineal cysts are typically found in young adults, ranging from 20 to 30 years of age, and are three times more likely to occur in women than in men. The exact cause of pineal cysts is unknown.
However, since they are seen most frequently in young women, one common hypothesis is that hormonal changes play a role in their formation. As women age, the cyst initially increases and then eventually decreases in size, following a similar pattern to hormonal stages. With men, they tend to remain stable over time.
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